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12 November 2010 Newsletter November 2010

Dear Éiriú Eolas family,

We are very happy to introduce to you another Eiriu Eolas instructor this month, Elan Martin from New York, whose approach to teaching, his humor and integrity as a person, has helped reach and touch the lives of many who attended his EE meetings.

For this month’s issue we also chose a couple of articles that deal with how meditation helps heal and rejuvenate our brain. If our thoughts and actions help shape our life, and brain is the command center for all our actions and thoughts, isn’t it of utmost importance that we provide it with the best care possible? In modern daily life our brain is constantly attacked by environmental toxins and the poisons that we ingest as foods. Also, next to physical stressors, psychological stress is another huge implicator in aging and by proxy, brain degeneration. Recent studies however, as you will read below, have proven that the regular practice of meditation reverses the aging process and makes the gray matter of the brain (neural tissue found in the brain and the spinal cord) grow! Meditation can indeed increase our intelligence.

The studies showed an increase in thickness of the prefrontal cortex of the brain (associated with attention and being in the present) during techniques where the subjects focused on their body or breathing during meditation. This means that even before entering the meditation part of the program, all of us who practice the breathing techniques of Eiriu Eolas, have already begun working on “thickening” our brain. During the Prayer of the Soul our brain cells will continue to heal and rejuvenate as the life affirming words of the meditation enter our subconscious, triggering the healing powers of our bodies and soul. And we see the results of this simple daily practice manifest in the effectiveness with which we handle unexpected events, in our calm and clear thoughts that help us make better choices in our lives, in our ability to absorb and retain information much better than we ever did before! All because we choose to dedicate few minutes of our time everyday to BE.

Warm regards,

The Eiriu Eolas Team

Meet the teacher: Elan Martin

Elan Martin lives and works in New York City and has been practicing Eiriu Eolas for over a year. He says, “after trying so many different techniques, visualizations, and rituals that were supposed to help me with life to grow spiritually, and as a person, it was a lovely thing to finally find one that works. I thought that something this good should be shared and taught to people who were searching like I was, so I became a certified teacher of the Eiriu Eolas program.” Elan greatly enjoys teaching Eiriu Eolas classes with his wife Ingrid, talking about world events with his daughter, and listening to their two cats stimulate their vagus nerves.

Mental muscle: six ways to boost your brain


Breathe in, breathe out. Breathe in, breathe out. I crack open an eye. Everyone else has theirs closed. I shut it again. Breathe in, breathe out. Around me people are sitting crossed-legged, meditating. For some it’s spiritual, for others an oasis of calm. Me? I’m building a better brain.

A few months ago I would probably have bought a brain-training game, but alas, it turns out they are probably useless. Although your performance on the games improves, that effect doesn’t seem to translate into the real world (see “The rise and fall of brain training” at end of article). With that in mind, I wondered if there was anything else I could do to give my grey matter a boost.

Our brains are constantly adapting to information from the world around us. However, some activities make a bigger impression than others. In recent years, researchers have been probing how outside influences, from music to meditation, might change and enhance our brains.

One of the most promising is music – and not via the famous but controversial “Mozart effect”, whereby merely listening to classical music is supposed to improve brain performance. Learning to play an instrument brings about dramatic brain changes that not only improve musical skills but can also spill over into other cognitive abilities, including speech, language, memory, attention, IQ and even empathy. Should I dust off my trumpet and get practising?

Musical training, especially at a young age, seems to significantly alter the structure of your brain. For instance, after 15 months of piano lessons young children had more highly developed auditory and motor areas than their untrained peers. These brain areas are very active when you play an instrument (Journal of Neuroscience, vol 29, p 3019).

Professional musicians have an increased volume of grey matter, which routes information around the brain, in areas that deal with motor control, audition and visuo-spatial processing (Journal of Neuroscience, vol 23, p 9240). Musicians who started training before the age of 7 also have a thicker corpus callosum, the bundle of nerve fibres that shunts information between the two halves of the brain (Neuropsychologia, vol 33, p 1047).

These structural changes have been shown to tally with the development of musical ability. But can music reach outside of its own domain and improve other aspects of cognition?

The tentative answer is yes. Musically trained people perform better on tests of auditory memory – the ability to remember lists of spoken words, for example – and auditory attention. Children with a musical training have larger vocabularies and higher reading ability than those who do not (Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol 11, p 599). There is even some evidence that early musical training increases IQ (Psychological Science, vol 15, p 511).

Better learning

Patrick Ragert at Ruhr-University Bochum in Germany and colleagues have an idea why this should be so. They found that professional pianists were much better than non-musicians at a standard test of spatial acuity – the ability to discriminate two closely separated points. Crucially, they also improved faster with practise (European Journal of Neuroscience, vol 19, p 473). This is evidence that the brains of trained musicians are more plastic, says Ragert, suggesting that learning an instrument may enhance your capacity to learn other skills.

This can even extend to languages. Trained musicians are better at discriminating pitch changes in made-up words similar to those found in Mandarin, a “tonal” language where such changes can alter the meaning of a word. This is evidence that they are better equipped to learn new languages (Applied Psycholinguistics, vol 28, p 565). And that is not all. Music training has even been shown to enhance empathy because it fine-tunes your ability to recognise emotional nuances in speech (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol 1169, p 209).

Much of this research has been done in children or professional musicians who started training very young. Developing brains are known to be more malleable than adult ones – for music, there seems to be a sensitive period at around 7. So would the same kind of training make any difference to me? “Those who begin musical training earlier in life see greater enhancements,” says Dana Strait, who works in music cognition at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois. “But all signs point toward musical training being powerful at any point in life.”

So if I resumed trumpeting where I left off, I could potentially enhance my brain in all sorts of ways (while simultaneously delighting my neighbours, no doubt). But years of practise seemed a little daunting, so I went off in search of a shortcut.

That’s why I found myself sitting in a small room with two electrodes stuck to my head. It sounds like something you’d see in an episode of 24, but I was being set up for a trial of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a way of enhancing brain activity using an electrical current.

The current is tiny – just 1 to 2 milliamps – and though the mechanism is not fully clear, tDCS appears to increase the excitability of neurons, making active areas of the brain work even harder. Depending where you place the electrodes, it can lead to an enhancement in cognitive functions including attention and vision (Neuropsychologia, vol 48, p 2789).

Roi Cohen Kadosh, a neuroscientist at the University of Oxford, is particulary interested in tDCS’s potential to give our brains a boost. He has been looking for the part of the brain that is responsible for mathematical ability. In 2007, he pinpointed this to the right parietal lobe, just above the right ear. When his team “short-circuited” this area using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) – a stream of magnetic pulses which temporarily disables a targeted area of the brain – they found that people got worse at numerical tasks. In fact, their performance resembled people with dyscalculia, who have difficulty comprehending mathematics.

Having disrupted our ability to use numbers, Cohen Kadosh wondered whether he could improve it too.

He now has his answer. Cohen Kadosh managed to improve numeracy in volunteers by applying tDCS to the right parietal cortex.

He zapped his volunteers while they familiarised themselves with made-up symbols representing the numbers 1 to 9. The volunteers had no idea which symbols stood for which number but had to work it out by trial and error. After each training session they were given tests to see how well they could perform calculations using the symbols.

Those given tDCS learned the symbols faster and did better in the tests than those given a sham procedure. It did not affect other brain functions, Cohen Kadosh’s team found.

Cohen Kadosh, who announced his results at a conference at the University of Oxford in June, had another surprise in store – the improvements have lasted six months so far.

Since we constantly encounter numbers in our daily life, Cohen Kadosh said it is really important that people who have difficulties with numbers know about these kind of options for improving their cognition, as an alternative to drug therapies.

Electricity can also boost visual memory. Richard Chi and colleagues at the University of Sydney, Australia, used tDCS to increase activity in the right anterior temporal lobe, near the temple, which is involved in visual perception and memory. His volunteers experienced a 110 per cent improvement in a subsequent visual memory task compared with a group who received a sham treatment (Brain Research, vol 1353, p 168).

It doesn’t take a huge leap of imagination to see where this could all be heading. Cohen Kadosh reckons tDCS could be packaged into a portable gadget. “In the future I can see it being of use in schools or at home, to advance the abilities of children with learning difficulties.” He says that it is much safer than other types of brain stimulation because tDCS does not cause neurons to fire directly, it merely makes them more responsive.

Bright lights

Direct current may not be the only way to boost your brain at the flick of a switch. Light, too, can have some surprising effects on cognition that have nothing to do with vision.

We understand pretty well how our brains process visual information and use light to regulate the body clock and hormone secretion, but have only just begun to realise the extent to which light can directly affect brain function. Several studies have shown that simply exposing people to light improves performance on many cognitive tasks.

In these studies, volunteers with normal vision were given a variety of tests while exposed to bright light during the day. Their performance in visual searches, mathematics, logical reasoning and reaction time all improved with exposure to bright light (Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol 13, p 429).

This appears to be because light boosts alertness. In another study, volunteers had their brains scanned as they performed a short-term memory task while exposed to either violet, blue or green light. The scans revealed that after just a few seconds of light exposure an area of the brain stem known to play a role in alertness became more active (PLoS One, vol 2, p 1247). Blue light was the most potent. Similarly, in simple reaction tasks, exposure to blue light is more effective in sustaining cognitive performance than green light (Sleep, vol 29, p 161).

These effects are probably mediated by a recently discovered pigment in the retina called melanopsin, which is not involved in vision. Melanopsin absorbs pale blue light better than other wavelengths, which is not surprising as natural light contains a lot of blue. But exactly how it boosts cognition remains unclear.

“No doubt further research will expand our understanding of the characteristics of the light environment that are required to optimise brain function,” says Gilles Vandewalle, a neuroscientist at the University of Montreal, Canada.

That, however, is one for the future. I am looking for a brain boost right now. Perhaps I should stop thinking about my brain and concentrate on my stomach.

Brain food

Many foods contain chemicals that have been claimed to boost mental performance. Perhaps the most famous are omega-3 fatty acids, found naturally in oily fish, walnuts and green vegetables, and increasingly added to processed foods such as bread and yoghurt. For years these have been touted as the quintessential brain food – but the most recent evidence suggests that they do little or nothing to improve mental powers (New Scientist, 15 May, p 32).

Even so, the dream of brain-boosting through diet lives on. Attention has now shifted to another group of chemicals, the flavonoids, found in fruits such as blueberries and blackcurrants and also in cocoa, green tea and red wine.

Jeremy Spencer at the University of Reading, UK, is investigating the brain-enhancing effects of food. In experiments on rodents his team has shown that eating dietary quantities of flavonoids can lead to enhancements in memory and protect against degeneration of the brain (Chemical Society Reviews, vol 38, p 1152).

A pilot study suggests that something similar applies to humans. “We looked at the effect of blueberries and found they improve attention,” says Spencer.

Spencer also took blood samples from the volunteers. These suggest that flavonoids activate biochemical pathways that increase the expression of genes linked to memory.

For example, flavonoids are able to raise levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein known to be important for learning and memory. BDNF is a growth factor that stimulates the development of axons linking one brain cell to the next.

Spencer suggests that the effect may also trigger increased communication between brain cells. However, flavonoids are also known to affect the circulatory system, lowering blood pressure and increasing elasticity of blood vessels. In this way, they have been shown to increase blood flow to the brain. This is known to be good for mental performance, possibly via the generation of new neurons in the hippocampus through the triggering of stem cell differentiation. “Eating blueberries could stimulate neuronal growth through increased blood flow to this area,” says Spencer.

“They appear to have almost drug-like effects,” Spencer adds. “It’s quite possible that these food-derived components may be used in the future as precursors for mind-enhancing drugs.”

Chris Bird, a neuroscientist at University College London, says that the preliminary results look promising, but questions whether a flavonoid-rich diet would have noticeable effects in the real world. “I will continue to eat them and hope that they might be doing something good for me,” he says.

Another promising compound is based on magnesium. Earlier this year Guosong Liu and colleagues at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology reported the results of feeding a magnesium compound, magnesium-L-threonate (MgT), to rats. They found it significantly raised magnesium levels in the brain and led to increases in both spatial and associative memory in young and old rats (Neuron, vol 65, p 165). Liu also showed that boosting magnesium in the brain increases synaptic plasticity in neurons and neurogenesis – the production of new neurons – in the hippocampus. If it can be safely adapted to humans, the authors suggest that this dietary supplement could boost cognition.

And after all that brain food, it might be time to pay a visit to the gym. While regular exercise certainly increases blood flow to the brain, in rats at least, whether it holds true for humans is still a matter of debate.

Since monkeys are more comparable to humans, Judy Cameron at the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, trained monkeys to use treadmills to see if it affected their mental agility. One group of monkeys worked out for an hour a day five days a week. Another group spent the time sitting on an immobile treadmill. Five weeks in, all the monkeys were given a task where they had to learn which object covered a food reward. The monkeys that had worked up a sweat were twice as fast at this exercise as those that had been sedentary (Neuroscience, vol 167, p 1239).

Analysis of brain tissue showed that the runners had a greater volume of blood vessels. Since blood delivers oxygen and nutrients to the brain, this could explain why exercise increased their cognitive function.

Concrete evidence that exercise improves brain function in humans has been harder to find. Numerous studies have shown that moderate exercise can slow age-related decline. But in August, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign showed that daily walking improved executive functions such as planning and abstract thinking in younger adults (Frontiers in Ageing Neuroscience, vol 2, article 32).

Although scientists still do not know how exercise benefits the brain, studies like these, together with those in animals, hint that physical activity may spur the growth of neurons in regions important to memory and improve activity in areas that are responsible for executive function.

Key chemicals that might be involved include BDNF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which aids blood vessel growth. Several animal studies have shown greater concentrations of these chemicals in animals that have exercised, suggesting that a workout literally helps them grow a better brain. In humans BDNF levels have also been shown to increase after exercise.

In both animals and humans, excessive exercise had the opposite effect, diminishing levels of BDNF, which might mean that moderate bursts of activity promote the right chemical building blocks for a better brain.

So if I can improve my brain with music, light, blueberries and exercise, why am I here, sitting crossed-legged, concentrating on my breathing?

Humans have strived to gain enlightenment and control over the mind through meditation for centuries. But while practitioners have claimed a number of brain benefits, few have been well tested scientifically.

Meditate to accumulate

So when, in 2005, the Dali Lama famously challenged neuroscientists to test the memories of monks, several groups of investigators jumped at the chance. They travelled to monasteries in Nepal to test Buddhist monks. The initial results were disappointing. They found no difference in visual memory tests between monks who meditated regularly and non-meditators.

Then they tested a monk immediately after a meditation session. “He showed unbelievable performance,” says Maria Kozhevnikov, then at George Mason University. It turns out just 20 minutes of daily yoga meditation improved both visual memory and spatial skills dramatically, but the boost was short-lived (Psychological Science, vol 20, p 645).

Since then, evidence has piled up that intensive meditation training – say 10 hours a day for three months – enhances attention and executive function. And earlier this year a team led by Fadel Zeidan of Wake Forest University School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, reported that just four 20-minute training sessions improved visuo-spatial processing, working memory and executive functions in people who had never meditated before (Consciousness and Cognition, vol 19, p 597). Bruce O’Hara at the University of Kentucky in Lexington even showed that meditation appears to improve vigilance and reaction times (Behavioral and Brain Functions, vol 6, p 47).

Do these findings suggest that it’s worth practising meditation before doing something mentally challenging? Although the data is limited, O’Hara thinks it might help. “Meditating prior to studying or taking an exam could be beneficial. The improvements may be small, but worthwhile.”

So who needs brain training? With so many options at my disposal, I have no excuse for not keeping my brain in tip-top condition. The right diet, a spot of exercise and meditation and a bit of sunshine are all I need. Perhaps some of it really will help me to build a better brain over the coming years. At the very least, I’ve got an excuse for a glass of red wine.

The rise and fall of brain training

Once touted as the fastest way to hone your mental powers, brain training software has now been consigned to the shelf of technologies that failed to live up to expectations. What went wrong?

The big question was whether getting better at the game would translate into general cognitive improvements. Some trials have shown success, but have been criticised for being too small to produce meaningful results.

No large, published trial has yet shown concrete evidence that brain training has an effect on real world activity. In fact, the largest trial ever found that it doesn’t work.

Early this year, a team led by Adrian Owen of the MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit in Cambridge, UK, got over 11,000 volunteers to do either online brain training or surf the web to find answers to a set of obscure questions.

All the volunteers showed improvements in the task they were assigned, but there was no difference between the groups on other tests of cognition. The conclusion? There’s no evidence that brain trainers improve general cognitive functioning (Nature, vol 465, p 775).

How Meditation Affects the Gray Matter of the Brain


I like to meditate. It makes me feel at ease and I am convinced that the sense of calm it produces helps me to handle the daily challenges of my life. There are, of course, times when I don’t keep up my daily practice of sitting quietly for 10 or 15 minutes, but these are the times in my life when I experience more stress.

Stress affects everyone. I don’t know a single person who doesn’t get stressed. But unfortunately, it plays a major role in illness. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in fact, up to 90 percent of doctor visits in the U.S. may be stress-related. Meditation is an antidote to stress, just as an aspirin can counter a headache. A regular practice can be a major boost to health.

It calms the nervous system. It’s good for the immune system. It’s also good for the heart; it helps produce nitric oxide (not nitrous oxide — that’s laughing gas!) in the arteries, dilating them and reducing blood pressure. It also smooths heart rhythms.

But thanks to an explosion of brain research we now know that it also physically impacts our gray matter.

One study to show this was led by scientists at the Center for Functionally Integrative Neuroscience at Aarhus University in Denmark. Comparing MRI scans of the brains of meditators with the brains of non-meditators, they showed that meditation causes actual physical changes in the gray matter of the lower brain stem. Meditation makes the gray matter grow.

In another study, scientists Giuseppe Pagoni and Milos Cekic, from the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Emory University in Atlanta, compared the volume of gray matter in the brains of people performing Zen meditations with another group who were not meditators.

The volume of our gray matter normally reduces as we get older and this is what the scientists found in the group of non-meditators. But for the meditators, their gray matter hadn’t reduced at all with age. According to the scientists, meditation had a ‘neuroprotective’ effect on the meditators: It protected the brain from some of the effects of aging.

This mirrors some 2008 Harvard research that analyzed the genes of meditators against non-meditators. It was the first study of its kind to measure the genetic impact of meditation and found that 2,209 genes were differently activated in long-term meditation practitioners compared with non-meditators. And even looking at novice meditators, they found that 1,561 genes were affected after only eight weeks of meditation practice. They concluded that the genetic effects of meditation may have long-term physiological consequences, one of which was a slowing down of the rate of aging.

We have all heard the stories of people under extreme stress whose hair turns white in a matter of weeks. We know that stress can speed up aging. So why should it be a surprise to us that a technique to combat stress should be able to slow aging?

There are many different forms of meditation. A study at Massachusetts General Hospital examined the impact of the Buddhist ‘Insight’ meditation on the brain. Insight meditation is a technique of moving our attention over the body or focusing on our breathing. The study found that it caused an increase in thickness of the prefrontal cortex in the brain, the part just above the eyes and associated with attention.

Several areas of the brain are active when we meditate, but most pronounced is the prefrontal cortex because when we meditate we are focusing our attention on something — whether that be the body, our breathing, a word, a candle or even a spiritual ideal. When this area is active, just like a muscle being exercised, it grows.

Neuroscientists use this analogy to describe the way the brain changes. When we exercise a muscle it becomes larger and denser with muscle mass. In a similar way, when we exercise any part of the brain, which we do when we meditate, it becomes larger and denser with neural mass — gray matter. The phenomenon is known as neuroplasticity and describes how the brain actually changes throughout life.

When I attended university I learned that the brain is hardwired once we reach young adulthood. The analogy used is that when we are young, the brain is a bit like dough, which can be kneaded into various forms, but when we reach young adulthood we put the dough in the oven and it comes out with a bread crust on it. The brain is then ‘hardwired,’ we were taught.

But this analogy has since been abandoned. We now know that we never put the dough in the oven. Our gray matter is ever-changing as we experience life; as we learn, walk, run, dance, and when we concentrate, as we do when we meditate.

Our gray matter is changing until the last seconds of our life. It grows even with our last breath.


For the study where meditation caused changes in the gray matter of the lower brain stem, see: P. Vestergaard-Poulsen, M. van Beek, J. Skewes, C. R. Bjarkam, M. Stubberup, J. Bertelsen, and A. Roepstorff, ‘Long-Term Meditation is Associated with Increased Gray Matter Density in the Brain Stem’, Neuroreport, 2009, 20(2), 170-174. Link to article.

For the study where Zen meditation impacted gray matter, see: G. Pagoni and M. Cekic, ‘Age Effects on Gray Matter Volume and Attentional Performance in Zen Meditation’, Neurobiology of Aging, 2007, 28(10), 1623-1627. Link to article.

For the study where meditation produced effects at the genetic level, see: J. A. Dusek, H. H. Otu, A. L. Wohnhueter, M. Bhasin, L. F. Zerbini, M. G., Joseph, H. Benson, and T. A. Liberman, ‘Genomic Counter-Stress Changes Induced by the Relaxation Response’, PLoS ONE, 2008, 3(7), e2576, 1-8. Link to article.

For the effect of the Buddhist Insight meditation on the prefrontal cortex, see: S. W. Lazar, C. A. Kerr, R. H. Wasserman, J. R. Craig, D. N. Greve, M. T. Treadway, M. McGarvey, B. T. Quinn, J. A. Dusek, H. Benson, S. L. Rauch, C. I. Moore, and B. Fischi, ‘Meditation Experience is Associated with Increased Cortical Thickness’, Neuroreport, 2005, 16(17), 1893-1897. Link to article.

Posted in Newsletters

30 September 2010 Newsletter September 2010

Dear Éiriú Eolas family,

We in the North hemisphere are bidding the summer farewell, and vacation is over for most of us. We are now getting ready to go back to our routine. Routine helps us be more organized and effective with everything we need to do on a daily basis, but we know that unfortunately with it, comes stress. Having the Éiriú Eolas program at hand however, you have the tool to bring your stress under control AND heal your body, mind and spirit at the same time. So keep up with your regular practice, especially Pipe Breathing and Meditation everyday!

For our September issue, we found some articles that deal with the subject of inflammation and the vagus nerve’s role in reducing inflammation. Remember that inflammation is linked to every known mood, behaviour, attention, memory, and neuro-degenerative disease. As the vagus nerve is stimulated, it releases the neurotransmitter molecule acetylcholine, which is able to shut off abnormal immune system responses, inflammation being one of them. Isn’t it amazing that just proper breathing alone can help you regain your health, and even save your life, or the life of someone you care about?

We are also proud to present our featured teacher, Ingrid Tulloch of New York City. Her enthusiasm and dedication is inspiring to all of us who teach the Éiriú Eolas program.

And lastly, Éiriú Eolas has given it’s first three-day workshop, discussing not only the program itself, but lectures on diet, nutrition, and dealing with the problem of difficult, sometimes psychopathic people you may have in your life. We hope to be bringing this life-changing presentation to other part of the world soon. Enjoy the photos of this special event in Lille, France, here: http://eiriu-eolas.org/forum/viewtopic.php?f=9&t=170

We hope that you will find this information useful to you, and we are looking forward to see you in class!

The Éiriú Eolas Teachers

Meet the teacher: Ingid Tulloch-Martin

Ingrid Tulloch-Martin is happily married to fellow Eiriu Eolas instructor Elan Martin and together they live with their daughter and two cats that are experts at stimulating their vagus nerve. She holds degrees in Psychology from The City University of New York. In between teaching undergraduate psychology, writing her PhD dissertation on mechanisms of recovery from methamphetamine-induced neural toxicity, and the work of everyday living, she practices and teaches the Eiriu Eolas detoxification and rejuvenation system in New York City.

After a year of doing Eiriu Eolas, it’s amazing how different I feel physically, emotionally and spiritually. A year and a half ago I was constantly fatigued, my blood pressure was off the charts, I was 20 lbs heavier and every minor crisis became an insurmountable obstacle. Today I can truly say this is no longer the case, Eiriu Eolas rejuvenated my life!

New understanding of vagus nerve’s role in regulating inflammation


It used to be dogma that the brain was shut away from the actions of the immune system, shielded from the outside forces of nature.

But that’s not how it is at all. In fact, thanks to the scientific detective work of Kevin Tracey, MD, it turns out that the brain talks directly to the immune system, sending commands that control the body’s inflammatory response to infection and autoimmune diseases.

Understanding the intimate relationship is leading to a novel way to treat diseases triggered by a dangerous inflammatory response.

Dr. Tracey, director and chief executive of The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, will be giving the 2007 Stetten Lecture on Wednesday, Oct. 24, at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, MD. His talk – Physiology and Immunology of the Cholinergic Anti-inflammatory Pathway – will highlight the discoveries made in his laboratory and the clinical trials underway to test the theory that stimulation of the vagus nerve could block a rogue inflammatory response and treat a number of diseases, including life-threatening sepsis.

With this new understanding of the vagus nerve’s role in regulating inflammation, scientists believe that they can tap into the body’s natural healing defenses and calm the sepsis storm before it wipes out its victims. Each year, 750,000 people in the United States develop severe sepsis, and 215,000 will die no matter how hard doctors fight to save them. Sepsis is triggered by the body’s own overpowering immune response to a systemic infection, and hospitals are the battlegrounds for these potentially lethal conditions.

The vagus nerve is located in the brainstem and snakes down from the brain to the heart and on through to the abdomen. Dr. Tracey and others are now studying ways of altering the brain’s response or targeting the immune system itself as a way to control diseases.

Dr. Tracey is a neurosurgeon who came into research through the back door of the operating room. More than two decades ago, he was treating a young girl whose body had been accidentally scorched by boiling water and she was fighting for her life to overcome sepsis. She didn’t make it. Dr. Tracey headed into the laboratory to figure out why the body makes its own cells that can do fatal damage. Dr. Tracey discovered that the vagus nerve speaks directly to the immune system through a neurochemical called acetylcholine. And stimulating the vagus nerve sent commands to the immune system to stop pumping out toxic inflammatory markers. “This was so surprising to us,” said Dr. Tracey, who immediately saw the potential to use vagus stimulation as a way to shut off abnormal immune system responses. He calls this network “the inflammatory reflex.”

Research is now underway to see whether tweaking the brain’s acetylcholine system could be a natural way to control the inflammatory response. Inflammation is key to many diseases – from autoimmune conditions like Crohn’s disease and rheumatoid arthritis to Alzheimer’s, where scientists have identified a strong inflammatory component.

Dr. Tracey has presented his work to the Dalai Lama, who has shown a great interest in the neurosciences and the mind-body connection. He has also written a book called “Fatal Sequence,” about the double-edge sword of the immune system.

Headquartered in Manhasset, NY, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research is home to international scientific leaders in Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, psychiatric disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, sepsis, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, human genetics, leukemia, lymphoma, neuroimmunology, and medicinal chemistry. The Feinstein Institute, part of the North Shore-LIJ Health System, ranks in the top 6th percentile of all National Institutes of Health grants awarded to research centers. Feinstein researchers are developing new drugs and drug targets, and producing results where science meets the patient. For more information, please visit http://www.FeinsteinInstitute.org or http://feinsteininstitute.typepad.com/feinsteinweblog/


Inflammatory Mast Cells Silenced


In a previous article, I outlined the role of the vagus nerve in responding to infection/damage signals by producing signals that inhibit inflammation. In a recent article (ref. below), the role of the vagus nerve in gut inflammation was examined using real-time biophotonic labeling. Basically that means that a video camera sensitive to infrared can be used to detect infrared dyes produced when NFkB is activated — the camera is able to visualize regions of inflammation in living mice. Using this technique, researchers were able to demonstrate that cutting the vagus nerve produced heightened inflammation in gut treated with an irritant. The vagus nerve appears to stimulate regulatory T cells that lower the activity of inflammatory cells.

The studies were performed in a mouse line constructed to express an infrared fluorescent protein in cells in which the inflammation transcription factor, NFkB, is activated. Mice of this strain were prepared with and without the vagus nerve intact leading to the intestines. The mice were then exposed to sodium dextran sulfate (DSS) to simulate inflammatory bowel disease symptoms.

Cutting the Vagus Nerve Permits Inflammation

Mice with intact vagus nerves exhibited much less inflammation in their gut than those without vagus innervation. The cut vagus experiments demonstrated that the vagus nerve was responsible for suppressing inflammation. Further experiments were performed to determine if the inflammatory and anti-inflammatory reactions could be transferred to other mice by transferring cells from the treated mice.

Regulatory T Cells (CD4+, CD25+) Block Inflammation

Transfer experiments showed that inflammatory T cells (CD4+, CD25-) from cut vagus, DSS mice would cause bowel inflammation in other mice, but that did not happen with the same type of cells from mice with intact vagus nerves. Further tests showed that either cutting the vagus or adding inflammatory T cells from a mouse with a cut vagus, reduced the population of regulatory T cells (CD4+, CD25+) in control mice treated with DSS. So, without the vagus stimulation, the regulatory T cell population declined in the presence of inflammatory signals.

Absence of Regulatory T Cells Can Explain Many Inflammatory Diseases

In many inflammatory diseases, e.g. celiac, Crohn’s disease, rosacea, there appears to be a deficiency of regulatory T cells. In the absence regulatory T cells, signals from vagus nerves will no longer produce anti-inflammatory suppression. In fact the same nerve signals may become inflammatory. This would explain why rosaceans will become inflamed by hot or cold stimulation that would normally lead to anti-inflammatory stimulation of regulatory T cells. Similarly, capsaicin, castor oil and menthol, which normally produce an anti-inflammatory response, produce inflammation in rosaceans.


O’Mahony C, van der Kleij HP, Bienenstock J, Shanahan F, O’Mahony L. 2009. Loss of vagal anti-inflammatory effect – in vivo visualization and adoptive transfer. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. Aug 12. [Epub ahead of print]

Posted in Newsletters

30 August 2010 Newsletter August 2010

Hi all!

Those who have visited our website www.eiriu-eolas.org will notice that we are now published with the same format. We love the layout and colours and hope you will enjoy our new, improved newsletter.

This month brings you some new thoughts on reducing your stress and increasing your enjoyment of life. And when you start working on one part of your life, often other parts come more into focus. Sometimes our feelings of stress and anxiety can (surprisingly) be related to diet. If you are one that has decided to cut sugar from your diet, we have an article on one fantastic nutritional supplement that help ease the craving for that ultra-fudge chocolate cookie!

In the months ahead, we will also be introducing our Éiriú Eolas instructors from around the world. This month features Eric Burt, who teaches in Hawaii.

Have a great rest of the summer!

The Éiriú Eolas Team

Meet the teacher: Erica Burt

My Name is Erica M. Burt. I am a long time resident of a small country community on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. I graduated Suma Cum Laud from Chaminade University with a Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education. In addition I have a teaching certificate from the Hawaii State Teachers Association.

Here in Hawaii our family currently runs a small organic farm and sustainable agriculture consultation business. Our current focus is educating the public about food security and safety. Having been involved with health food and organic farming for the past ten years, I have gained a wide range of knowledge about the importance healthy living, healthy eating, and being an informed consumer. For the past 2 years I have been researching organic food and farm policy, and overall health and wellness for the Signs of the Times website.

I first discovered Eiriu Eolas on line in July 2009. As a parent of two teenage girls I was researching ways to deal with stress associated with parenting, marriage and work life. I was pleased to discover the Eiriu Eolas Breathing and Meditation program and I began practicing the Eiriu Eolas techniques with my husband. After several months of practicing Eiriu Eolas regularly I was asked to attend a teacher – training workshop in the North East, I gladly accepted. In February of 2010 I was given an official Eiriu Eolas teacher certification from the Fellowship of the Cosmic Mind.

Eiriu Eolas has changed my life in many ways and I am excited about bringing this life-changing program to others in my community and to the world. My overall health and wellness has improved tremendously over the last year and I am thankful to have gathered a wealth of knowledge about detoxing the body, the mind and the spirit. In combination with regular practice of Eiriu Eolas I have learned so much about the importance of detoxing the mind of negative emotions and past emotional trauma. And with regular Eiriu Eolas meditation I have begun to cleanse my spirit, breath life deeply and accept my unique role in the universe.

This entire experience has organically unfolded over the past year and has led me to naturally share the Eiriu Eolas program with others. I am working on actively living the information I share with others, being the change I want to see in the world. Currently I share this program with families in the community, most families I work with have young or teenage children and many are feeling the stresses of juggling everyday life and raising children in these uncertain times. When I consult families I take time to bring up the importance of breathing and living a more informed existence. I find myself sharing many resources about proper diet, proper breathing and relaxation techniques. The knowledge I have gathered from Eiriu Eolas, Signs of the Times and The Fellowship of the Cosmic Mind has created a cohesive whole in my understanding of what it truly means to BE. In Hawaii we call this state of being HA or the breath of creation. The word ALOHA – known world wide as the Hawaiian word for LOVE, means the joyful sharing of life energy (ha) in the present. When we say ALOHA in the islands we are sharing the breath of creation and life with another – recognizing and revering the spirit that exists with all things and is the highest form of connection between beings. As a teacher of Eiriu Eolas in Hawaii I hope to share this Breath of Life with others!

My future plans include holding regular classes at the local community center, and bringing the relaxing and regenerative breathing exercises shared in the Eiriu Eolas program to enlisted army soldiers returning from war. Most of all I want to help others reclaim true health and wellness and share the spirit of ALOHA.

The Healer Within

From Dr. Rodger Murphree’s book, Treating and Beating Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

We are born with an innate ability to heal ourselves. If this were not true, we would quickly succumb to the millions of deadly microbes that inhabit our lungs and digestive tracts. These bugs are monitored and kept in check by the inner healer, the autonomic nervous system. It also controls how fast your heart beats, the rate of your breathing, how you walk, how you stand, and how fast blood pumps through your veins. It coordinates all functions of the body, including the immune system. Do you have to think about healing a broken bone?

No. Your inner self maintains a constant vigil, overseeing every bodily process. We are truly amazing organisms. You have a new liver every six weeks, and 98% of the atoms in our bodies are renewed every year. The power that made the body is ultimately the power that heals it. Understanding this concept can be intimidating. Medicine has been blinded by science and has largely neglected the profound influence of our higher self. Health professions are known as the “healing arts,” yet the art of medicine has been too often replaced with brain scans and drug therapies. But true health is more than the absence of disease. It is optimal physical, chemical, and spiritual well-being. I suggest a new paradigm, one that considers the role of our inner self in determining our state of health.

Mind Chatter

Our minds never stop chattering. We–consciously or subconsciously–take in, sort, analyze, and respond to billions of thoughts each day. This constant chatter, if not checked, begins totake its toll on our mental and physical well-being. Negative thoughts can create a blueprint for the subconscious mind to rely on. A few negative thoughts a day aren’t so bad, but 30 years of incessant worry shapes who we become as people, our personality.Your script is being written and rewritten every day by every thought you have.

I could write a lengthy chapter about all the mind-body studies and how they relate to emotional, mental, spiritual, physical, and chemical health, but I think it’s really this simple. Do you feel better or worse when you are laughing? How about scowling? It doesn’t take a scientific study of brain scans and heart monitors to know the answers.

Have you ever tried to stay sad or angry when smiling at yourself in the mirror? You can’t do it. This is because the muscles in the face, when contracted into a smile, trigger the brain to release happy hormones. I’ve found I feel and look my best when I’m physically and mentally rested. When I make the time to tone down the mind chatter and begin to listen to my inner voice, health, vitality, and joy are the rewards.

I’m not implying that you can think, meditate, or even pray yourself free of ailments. I know how debilitating FMS and CFS can be. These are not illnesses to be taken lightly! However, finding and tapping into your inner self only increases your chances of getting and being well in its truest sense.

Sometimes we have to dig deep to find the courage to overcome life’s tragedies. Consider Stephen Hawking, the famous physicist who has no use of his arms or legs. Some would have given up and been content to slowly die.

We can’t always control life’s obstacles, but we can control how we respond to them. Neglecting your inner self–your life essence–while attempting to overcome something as potentially life squelching as FMS/CFS is like trying to use a magnifying glass to watch a big-screen movie. Remove the magnifying glass and take in the big picture. Don’t just focusing on covering up symptoms with chemicals or physical therapies. That ignores the third pillar. Can you have optimal health without personally experiencing love and inner peace on a daily basis?

In order to heal yourself, you must begin to realize that true health comes from within. Your state of health is largely determined by how well you recognize this concept and your willingness to listen and trust your inner self.

The Healing Power of Prayer

Although 95% of Americans believe in God, most doctors are uncomfortable discussing spiritual matters. This is sad, since 60% of the population would like to discuss spiritual issues with their doctors and 40% would like for their doctors to pray with them. The effects of prayer are numerous: less anxiety, stress, and anger; lowered resting pulse rate and blood pressure; increased production of happy hormones; and increased pain threshold. In addition, prayer and other spiritual practices tap into the mind-body connection. They have a calming effect that involves every system in the body, including the nervous system, immune system, endocrine (hormonal) system, digestive system, and cardiovascular system. One study involving individuals with HIV showed that participation in religious or spiritual activities substantially improved immune function.

One of the most talked-about studies evaluating the positive benefits of prayer was published in /The Southern Medical Journal/ in 1988. It involved 393 hospitalized patients who were equally divided into two groups: one group served as the control and was treated with traditional medical care alone. The second group received prayer along with traditional medical care. Neither group, nor their doctors, knew who was receiving prayer from third parties. The group receiving prayer had these remarkable results: they had fewer congestive heart failures (8 versus 20), fewer of them needed diuretics (5 versus 15), they experienced fewer cardiac arrests (3 versus 14), they had fewer episodes of pneumonia (3 versus 13), fewer of them were prescribed antibiotics (3 versus 17), and they generally required less medication than the control group, who received no prayer from the volunteer third parties.

Tapping Into Your Inner Self

One of the healthiest things you can do in this lifetime is to learn to rise above the constant mind chatter by quieting your mind and allowing your inner self to flourish. You’ll start to realize how negative and self-destructive thoughts sabotage your innate desire to be healthy. Life’s true game is less about controlling your surroundings and more about letting go of unwanted negative thoughts–much like shedding layers of clothes when entering a warm room. The ability to control our minds by understanding, acknowledging, and choosing which thoughts, emotions, and feelings serve us best is perhaps the key that unlocks optimal health. Below are just a few ways to quiet the mind and tap into your inner self.

Conscious Breathing

Conscious breathing is one way to integrate your mind and body. Focusing on breathing, using mantras (repetitive sounds), and/or visualizing a word or a soothing scene are central to most meditative practices. In basic breathing exercises, all you need is a quite place and a willingness to quiet the mind. Conscious breathing reduces stress and allows you to filter out the constant mind chatter. Quieting the mind offers the opportunity to get in touch with your inner self. A conscious breathing exercise can be done any time of day and as often as you wish. Use it as a powerful stress-busting tool when you are feeling overwhelmed:

Bring your attention to your breathing. Notice the flow of breath in and out of your lungs. Take a deep breath in through your nose, allowing the air to fill your lungs. Slowly exhale through your mouth. Observe the rhythm that naturally occurs. Acknowledge any distracting thoughts, and simply let them go when they appear. Return your attention to the rhythm of your breathing. Continue to take deep breathes in and out. When it feels natural, try allowing more time between each breath. Pause when appropriate, and feel the inner peace. Enjoy the freedom from mind chatter.

Refocusing Technique

This technique is designed to allow you to take control of your mind. Too often we find ourselves at the mercy of our emotions and have knee-jerk reactions that don’t serve our higher self. When facing a stressful situation that threatens to overwhelm your best intentions, stop and take time to consider the wisdom of your inner self. This allows you to avoid being at the mercy of old negative habits and to write a new positive script that serves you better.

  1. Stop. Call time out. Take several deep breaths. Remember that with the help of your inner self, you can take control of a situation.
  2. Look. Rise above the situation and just be an observer. Notice how you feel, your thoughts, your surroundings, any other people involved. Be objective. Take it all in.
  3. Listen. Take a few minutes to focus on your breathing. Listen to what your inner self is saying. Pay attention to your chest area. Notice how you feel. Is this how you want to feel? Listen deeply. What is your inner self, your inner voice, telling you about thissituation?
  4. Choose. Make an affirmative statement about what you wish to choose in light of this situation “I choose to feel calm, balanced, and open to positive experiences.”
  5. Let it go. Choose happiness, peace, and serenity over having to be right. Choose acceptance of not knowing over having to understand. Choose love over hate. Choose thoughts of improving health over nagging reminders of disease.


Meditation can generally be divided into two categories: concentration methods, which emphasize focusing on your breathing or a specific object, and mindfulness meditation, which usually uses chants, focused breathing, or repetitive thoughts. The goal in either case is to allow thoughts, feelings, and emotions to appear moment by moment without placing any attention on them. Simply let the thoughts enter. Acknowledge them and let them go, allowing yourself to tap into your inner self. Meditation may be especially helpful for chronic pain. Others studies have shown the effectiveness of meditation for anxiety, substance abuse, skin ailments, and depression.


Yoga has been practiced in India for over 6,000 years. Hatha yoga, based on a system of physical postures, is the best-known form in America. Yoga means “yoke,” or union of the personal self with the Divine source. Others describe yoga as a way to join mind, body, and spirit to enrich one’s life. Yoga has made its way into several large hospitals around the country and continues to gain in popularity. Used on a regular basis, yoga offers a unique way to exercise and tone the physical body while at the same time quieting the mind.

The Hour of Power

Taking time on a daily basis to quiet the mind is a crucial component of living the lives we want to live. I try to find an hour of power every day. My hour of power involves prayer, meditation, and exercise. I also use some of this time to listen to positive subliminal tapes on such topics as abundant energy, laughter and happiness, and stress management.

Dr. Rodger Murphree is a board-certified nutritional specialist and chiropractic physician who has been in private practice since 1990. He is the founder and past clinic director for a large integrated medical practice located on the campus of Brookwood Hospital in Birmingham, Alabama. The clinic, which combined prescription and natural medicines for acute and chronic illnesses, was staffed with medical doctors, chiropractors, acupuncturists, nutritionists, and massage therapists. Dr. Murphree is the author of five books, including /Treating and Beating Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

Kick Your Sugar Cravings with L-glutamine

(quotes from Beating and Treating Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome )

L-glutamine can also be extremely helpful in eliminating sugar cravings. Animal studies have shown it quite efective in lowering both blood glucose and insulin levels.

Glutamine helps heal intestinal permeability. It is converted to glutamic acid in the brain. Glutamic acid increases neuronal activity, detoxifes ammonia (an abundant waste product in the body) from cells, and like glucose, is used to feed the brain. Glutamine plays an important role in intestinal maintenance and repair and is the major energy source of the intestines. It is one of the most important nutrients for the cells that line the colon.

Individuals with intestinal problems, including Crohn’s disease, colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, intestinal permeability, yeast overgrowth, and food allergies, especially need glutamine supplementation. Studies in Britain and Canada show that when individuals with infammatory bowel disease (IBD) were given glutamine, their symptoms, including abdominal pain and diarrhea, improved dramatically. In another study, children who took glutamine supplements showed increased mental abilities and tested higher on IQ tests. It also helps reduce sugar cravings and acts as an appetite suppressant.

Glutamine is one of the three amino acids that form glutathione. Glutathione is a powerful antioxidant and plays an important role in the detoxifcation system of the body. It helps clear unwanted toxins through the kidneys and liver.  It is also the precursor to two very important neurotransmitters: glutamic acid (glutamate) and GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). Glutamate is excitatory; GABA is relaxing.

Usual glutamine dose is 500–1,000 mg. twice daily on an empty stomach. Higher doses are necessary to repair leaky gut syndrome.

Posted in Newsletters

30 July 2010 Newsletter July 2010

Greetings Éiriú Eolas family!

We’ve expanded our newsletter to include everyone around the world who has expressed interest in the Éiriú Eolas Breath & Meditation program. We hope you will enjoy the articles we share with you and that you’ll find them interesting and informative. You will find the world-wide Éiriú Eolas schedules here and contact information for classes in the sidebar. We will be adding new features in the future, such as “Meet the Teachers”. If you have a story about what EE has done for your life or any other information you would like to share, we would love to hear about that too! Visit the Éiriú Eolas Forum and become a member of our online community.

Warm Regards,

Your Éiriú Eolas Teachers

A Natural Way to Treat Depression

Scientific research has established that chronic stress can lead to depression. Mainstream medicine provides many pharmaceutical solutions to treat the symptoms of depression while often ignoring the underlying cause. Stress is our system’s natural response to perceived dangers in our environment. It is meant to be a valuable, protective tool that ensures our survival in times of real physical danger. The hectic pace of our modern world results in increasing pressure on our lives, so that the body’s normal stress response is activated all the time. Alternative medicine now recognizes the connection between chronic stress and depression. The ancient technique of vagal-nerve stimulation has been proven to effectively treat depression by switching off the stress response that causes it.

Stress is literally everywhere in our world today. It can result from problems in our relationships, to pressures in our work environment, and daily in the tragedy-filled news stories that arrive in our houses from all over the world. Stress can also come from within. The constant worrying over the endless to-do lists in our minds, the despair arising from hidden secrets of our past and from unfulfilled dreams of our future. Constant, unrelenting stress can feel like carrying the weight of the whole world on one’s shoulders. Even joyous events in life like weddings, graduations, and promotions can become stressful as we try to conform to our society’s standards of how the event must unfold. Also, we must deal with emotional and psychological traumas, old wounds carried from our past, that can be activated by events in the present. Wherever we look, stress is everywhere, and people are suffering from all the physiological symptoms that come with it, the most prominent of all being depression.

Recognizing the signs of Depression:

  • Feelings of sadness that persist for many days
  • Loss of interest in activities that previously brought joy
  • Feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness
  • Uncertainty in making decisions
  • Inability to concentrate, feeling fatigued and irritable
  • Sleeping too much or too little
  • Eating too much or too little
  • Bodily aches and pains (headaches, nausea, joint pain, neck/shoulder tension, etc)

Now more than ever, it is time to take care of ourselves and deal with the debilitating symptoms of depression in a natural and effective way. Vagal-nerve stimulation employed by simple breathing techniques is one the best ways to alleviate stress that causes depression. The Eiriu Eolas breathing and rejuvenation program is the key by which we can actually eliminate the negative effects of stress on our lives. This amazing program can help us heal ourselves and give us the ability to think clearly in a world gone mad.

Modern western medicine has grappled with the problem of treating depression for as long as it has been recognized as a clinical condition. Early psychologists posited that talking about one’s problems and analyzing dreams was enough. This was followed by electroshock therapy which worked sporadically, but not consistently enough to validate it as a generalized treatment. After that came the appearance of various mind-altering chemicals, which helped alleviate some symptoms of depression without treating the underlying cause. These chemicals just covered up the problem, leaving a generation of addicts in its wake and creating enormous wealth and profit for the pharmaceutical companies. As the mind-body connection became better understood, the importance of the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) mediated by the vagus nerve was recognized as a crucial component in the treatment of depression.

Even modern medicine began to recognize the importance of vagal nerve stimulation in helping to switch off the the body’s natural stress response. Western doctors and scientists took their usual technological approach and created a mechanical device similar to the pacemaker that electronically stimulates the vagus nerve. The FDA, in 2003, approved vagus nerve stimulation, also known as VNS Therapy, as a treatment for chronic or recurrent treatment-resistant depression via a small device that is surgically implanted in the chest. Every few minutes the VNS pacemaker stimulates a small part of the vagus nerve, activating the PNS, reducing the stress response which can lead to depression. This gadget can cost up to $25,000, not counting the costs of surgery. Unfortunately, due to the dangers of interfering with heart function, electronic VNS therapy only stimulates one side of the vagus nerve, and so is not nearly as effective as other natural forms of vagal-nerve stimulation.

Our students and teachers know that there is a better, simpler, more natural and effective way to stimulate the vagus nerve. It is done via the revival of an ancient breathing technique called Eiriu Eolas. It is for this reason that the demand for EE classes increases everyday across the world. It is a program based on sound medical and scientific research and is working wonders for the thousands that are practicing it. The breathing technique consisting of correct diaphragmatic breathing and vagus nerve stimulation. The EE program is very simple to perform and accessible to everyone, regardless of age and/or physical capacity. As long as we are breathing, we can utilize the tools contained in the EE program to lead lives where we are in control of our stress, and be the masters of our physical, mental and emotional landscapes.

Posted in Newsletters
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